Friday, February 21, 2020

Methodology for a sociology class Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Methodology for a sociology class - Essay Example Immediately we looked the Mission District which works with a large number of the Latino, Chicano, Central and South American immigrant population. We also looked at the Dolores Street Community Services Center. This center works to provide many homeless people with affordable housing and helps empower some of its low-income residents living in San Francisco. We met Marlon Mendieta, the Housing Program Director of Dolores Street Community Service Center. She gave us a short summary on her center. She explained to us the steps they are taking in order to help underprivileged people in their community. She also provided us with information on how they are trying to create a healthy community where everybody has equal rights regardless of income, immigration or health status. After we spoke with Mrs. Mendieta we went to the womens building where we interviewed Yeni Solis, the Reception Coordinator. She explained the centers mission statement to us and told us that their goal is to empower women and girls in the society by providing them with services and programs to become more self-sufficient. The last stop for our team was The Mission Cultural Center Latino where we met Christina who was originally from Argentina . She told us about her unique experience with the center. She has been taking dancing classes and she told us how she is happy about being more involved with community. All of these centers gave us a more defining picture on the immigrants life in an urban community and a centers role in helping them adjust to life in America. Our group chose to not just browse the internet but to go to these centers and interview the staff and the immigrants. We wanted to have a genuine experience and to see exactly how the immigrants are living and adjusting to life in the Unites

Wednesday, February 5, 2020

Organization and Organizational Change Assignment

Organization and Organizational Change - Assignment Example With time constraint, management must maximize its time to alleviating the most pressing problems or issues. By identifying the actual performances, management can focus more time on the poor performances. After the poor performances are resolved, management can focus on improving the poor performance activities. Next, the author rightfully observes change management can allocate time to increasing performance outputs. Finally, management can use the remaining time to increase the average-rated activities. Resolving the above average performances, management can now use any possible time to ensuring retention of the best rated performances. Dean Anderson emphasized â€Å"different factors contribute to the change management process† (Anderson 31). The author correctly states that several factors are used in the formulation of the change management decisions. One of the factors is the competitors. When the competitor reduces its selling prices, the other competitors are persuaded to reduce their selling prices. Further, another factor is technology. When the author rightfully insists some competitors introduce new product technologies, all competitors are persuaded to acquire similar or even better product technology. For example, one company offers online booking services to its current and future customers. To retain customers, competitors are persuaded to implement similar online booking or marketing services. Furthermore, the author correctly insists changes in government statutes contribute to responsive change management strategies. For example, some governments require companies to reduce their factory smoke stack emissions. Consequently, management must comply. New government policies may require factory facilities to stop including all ozone layer damaging ingredients in the production process. Professor Robert Paton (51) emphasized â€Å"Companies must do their best to alleviate any resistance.† Some employees dislike learning

Tuesday, January 28, 2020

Marks and Spencer: Structure and Culture

Marks and Spencer: Structure and Culture 1. INTRODUCTION Marks Spencer is British institution. Opened in 1884, the company emerged as a major retailer of clothes, food, household items and financial services. By 1997, Marks Spencer was an international company with sales of over  £8 billion and very high net profit margins. However, the group experienced a shocking reversal in fortune at the turn of the 21st Century when its main customer base, women aged between 35 and 55 began to stop shopping at their stores. This posed a very serious threat to the companys survival and Marks Spencer thought hard and long about how to rectify the situation. It did so by introducing bold new moves changing its corporate culture and by strengthening existing systems and processes. By doing so, the company was able to regain its loyal customers and grow once again. Yet, the last few years have been challenging as the company was badly affected by the global economic crisis. This report outlines the changing structure and culture at Marks Spencers. It provides a comparison of the contributions of the key business functions to the organizational change. It also identifies the key stakeholders of the organization and the key issues of managing them. Finally, a SWOT analysis is done for Marks Spencer along with an assessment of its long term future prospects. 2. CHANGING CORPORATE CULTURE AND ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE All organizations have their own cultures, which consist of the values and beliefs shared by its members which determine to a considerable degree how managers respond to problems and opportunities. But corporate culture can become static and excessively bureaucratic over time, even among successful organizations (Huff et al, 2009). An organizational culture is powerful because it automatically shapes the way members see their world. Any culture is deeply rooted in beliefs and values that members have internalized. When beliefs and values are held without challenge for a long period of time, they are even less likely to be questioned (Robbins and Judge, 2007). The norms rarely change to accommodate those who deviate from them. Inertia sets in and employees become stuck in a rut. Employees become resistant to change and are unwilling to do things differently because they involve inconvenience and uncertainty. This could ultimately destroy the company. Like most successful organizations, Marks Spencer was a victim of its own success. Its corporate culture because inflexible, rigid and resistant to change because it was felt that since the company was successful, there was no need to change. Deeply entrenched was a sense of employee entitlement regarding remuneration and working hours. However, when it became clear that the old culture was unable to cope with changing demands of the marketplace, the top management decided on a major revamp. As a result, employees became less resistant to change and began to embrace new ways of doing things. Employees were willing to work for longer hours if it meant better pay and they were less resistant to the fact that they might lose their jobs if the company performed poorly. They were also sent for learning and education programs to equip them with new skills sets so that they were better able to cope with changes in the working environment. All these efforts contributed to the change in corporate culture which is now more dynamic and flexible. A number of major changes were also made to the organizational structure. The formal chain of command was flattened to a certain extent and in doing so the company became more agile and responsive to changes in customer demand and taste. The regional management structure was simplified to delegate more responsibility to individual store managers to give them more autonomy. 3. CONTRIBUTIONS OF KEY BUSINESS FUNCTIONS TO ORGANIZATIONAL CHANGES 3.1 Finance The finance function plays a critical role at Marks Spencer in cutting costs and eliminating unnecessary expenditure. The entire value chain was examined to determine where and how costs could be trimmed. As a result, the company was able to reduce costs, provide better prices to the customers and improve its overall profitability. Ultimately, it is the shareholders who stand to gain the most from the initiatives made in terms of maximization of shareholder wealth. 3.2 Marketing To attract new customers and retain existing customers at Marks Spencer, the marketing function critically examined the cause of declining sales. The main cause negative customer perception of its main customer base women aged between 35 and 55 that the clothes sold at Marks Spencer were unfashionable and even dowdy. Therefore, the marketing function decided to split up the long-cherished St Michaels brand into a number of categories to cater for different customer needs. Consequently, the company launched three new product categories for women (www.marksandspencer.com, 2011). The first, the Perfect and Classic ranges were for basic purposes, for example jeans, sweaters and plain shirts. The second range, Autograph is for the more fashionable woman of a larger demographic group. The final range, per una, is targeted at the younger woman of ages 25 to 35 and is of average dress size. By segmenting its products for different markets, the company was able to regain most of the sales it lost. Different marketing campaigns are held for each range and this makes the companys products appear more attractive to customers. 3.3 Operations A number of critical changes were made to the companys operations. For one, the supply chain was made leaner and in doing so, the company made substantial savings. Fewer suppliers were used and this facilitated transparency and response time. The lead time was reduced and the company placed a greater emphasis on timeliness and quality. These contribute to leaner operations which lead to higher profits. 3.4 Human Resource This function is critical to the successful implementation of a strategy. The HRM function at Marks Spencer played an important role in changing employee mindset and modifying the corporate culture to be more attuned to the changes that need to occur (Hitt et al, 2004). As a result, employees were more receptive to change and aware of the sacrifices they need to make. 4. KEY STAKEHOLDERS The key stakeholders of Marks Spencer are shareholders, management, employees and customers. The following diagram shows their relative importance and power: Power of Stakeholders Meet Their Needs Key Player B, C A D Least Important Show Consideration Interest Key: A Shareholders B Management C Customers D Employees 5. MANAGING KEY STAKEHOLDERS Shareholders would like to maximize their wealth. Share maximization is through share price appreciation and dividends (Aaker, 1996). Therefore, satisfying this group would require increasing profits and the company profile. Management is concerned about maintaining control over operations. Their goals are sometimes similar to that of shareholders but in some cases they differ (Daniels et al, 2007). Hence, there is the agency problem. The employees at Marks Spencer are most concerned about job security and work conditions. Ideally, they would like jobs that pay well and have good hours. However, this may be incompatible with the goal of wealth maximization of shareholders as employee benefits will erode profits. Similarly, if employees are unionized, they may cause problems to management and reduce its influence. Hence, management must strike a balance between making employees and shareholders happy. Customers are concerned about satisfying their needs and wants. Managing them effectively would require Marks Spencer to improve its product offering to make satisfied customers who make repeat purchases. 6. SWOT ANALYSIS 6.1 (S)trengths Excellent control system for suppliers, inventory and layout of stores. Very high quality products Efficient and modern production techniques Good understanding of its core customer base. 6.2 (W)eaknesses Generic clothing that is often perceived as unfashionable An image of being boring 6.3 (O)pportunities Global expansion Utilizing more overseas suppliers to achieve cost advantage Maximize use of existing technology to obtain competitive advantage 6.4 (T)hreats Competition with premium quality clothing manufacturers Competition with discount stores Economic downturn 7. FUTURE PROSPECTS Marks Spencer is facing a very difficult time. After its successful business turnaround, it is once again facing problems due to the recession. Indeed the next few years may be a very difficult time for the company. Not only is it facing competition from high end retailers but discount stores as well. Meanwhile, the middle class is shrinking and if the company does not take bold steps, it may collapse. To succeed, the company must grow its market share by penetrating new markets or new product lines. 8. CONCLUSION Marks Spencer is a company with a long history of success. To overcome its current difficulties, it must draw on its strengths, overcome its weaknesses and revamp its strategy to stay relevant and competitive.

Sunday, January 19, 2020

Biometrics :: Science Technology Essays

Biometrics For most people when first hearing the word biometrics, they have an instant reaction to tune out. Just because the term sounds complicated and somewhat boring does not mean that the information behind the term is incredibly interesting and fun! When first discussing the term with others, I too thought it would be a typical boring computer topic. It was not until I began to research the topic, that I saw computers to be intriguing. One of my favorite aspects of the topic is what it initially reminds me of. I could not help but think of spy and other technical movies that show biometrics being used. The term biometrics, refers to the automated methods of categorizing a person, based on their behavioral, and physiological characteristics. What people may not know about biometric systems, is that the basis alone is from natures oldest way of identification. By determining these characteristics in an authentication inquiry, this information can then be saved in reference, for identification to determine if the user can be granted access to any private or secured location. This particular method of recognition is preferred to those such as, passwords, or pin numbers. Although these methods are still commonly used, with biometrics we are able to make sure the person being identified is physically present, and elements the hassle of remembering several passwords. These physiological techniques could include fingerprints, retinal scanning, voice patterning, facial recognitions, DNA analysis along with hand and finger geometry. Biometrics is such a rapidly improving technology, that has been previously used for years in forensics, such as identification, and prison security. While the behavioral techniques include handwriting and voice recognition, gait, and keystroke dynamics. By having these special techniques replacing pins, we are able to feel secure about unauthorized used of ATM’s cellular phones, desktop PC’s, and other personal securities. In addition to these currently password protected areas, biometrics can also replaces keys for automobiles, such as key-less entry. Trust in these areas of secured access, is essential to a happy and healthy environment. Even though there are several ways of detecting identity, the most popular has been the facial recognition and fingerprint matching. These techniques are expected to be added in aid for homeland security identification, at places such as airports, along with helping in reliable travel documents, and preventing ID theft. Along with th e important need for reliable homeland security, biometrics are important in areas such as financial transactions, retail sales, investing, electronic banking, law enforcement, and health and social services.

Saturday, January 11, 2020

Land Ordinance of 1785

Land Ordinance of 1785 I)The Land Ordinance A. Adoption 1. The United States Congress adopted the Land Ordinance of 1785 in May 1785. 2. Thomas Jefferson wrote the Ordinance of 1784, which called for the land west of the Appalachian Mountains, north of the Ohio River, and east of the Mississippi River to be divided. a. This ordinance did not exactly describe how the land would be settled, governed, or how the land would become a state. 3.The Land Ordinance of 1785 put the 1784 resolution in operation by providing mechanism for selling or settling the land. B. Goals and Accomplishments: 1. Due to the fact that Congress could not raise taxes, the main goal of the ordinance was to sell the unmapped territory west of the states acquired in 1783 through the Treaty of Paris and uses the income as federal profit. 2. Over three-fourths of the continental US was surveyed using the rectangular survey, which provided the following: a. Easily recognizable land descriptions . Economic, political, and social development in the townships. 4. The Ordinance divided the land into townships, six square miles each that were divided into 36 1 square mile sections. a. Each of the 36 sections were subdivided into portions of land that were sold or used for a specific purpose. b. Section 16 of every township was reserved for the maintenance of public schools. c. In later townships, section 36 was designated as a school section. d. Sections 8, 11, 26, and 29 were reserved for federal sale Related article: Land of Opportunity

Friday, January 3, 2020

Henry Higgins - 1403 Words

Henry Higgins Higgins is an extremely interesting character and the life of the play. Although the plays obvious concern is the metamorphosis of a common flower girl into a duchess, the development of Higgins character is also important. The play isnt only Elizas story. One also detects changes in Higgins or to be more precise he appears to the reader in a new light at the end. This is seen when he tells Eliza that he has grown accustomed to seeing her face and hearing her voice. This is not much of a sensitive display of emotions but it is quite different than the savage invective he hurled at her at the beginning of the play in Covent Garden. Higgins is portrayed as being highly educated. Apart from being a professor of†¦show more content†¦At a certain level Higgins is an overgrown child. Shaw wrote in his stage directions that Higgins is, but for his years and size, rather like an impetuous baby taking notice eagerly and loudly, and requiring almost as much watching to keep him out of unintended mischief. His manner varies from genial bullying when he is in a good humor to stormy petulance when anything goes wrong, but he is so entirely frank and void of malice that he remains likeable even in his least reasonable moments. This trait of impetuous childishness in an otherwise extremely articulate and learned adult lends complexity to his characterization. This interpretation is confirmed by Higgins himself when he defends himself against the imagined notions held by Mrs. Pearce. He tells Colonel Pickering, Here I am, a shy, diffident sort of man. Ive never been able to feel really grown-up and tremendous, like other chaps. And yet shes firmly persuaded that Im an arbitrary overbearing bossing kind of person. I cant account for it. His blindness to his faults serves to endear the audience to him despite him being an egoist and a bully. It is important to note Higginss lack of interest in women. In Act Three, Higginss conversation with his mother regarding Elizas society appearance gradually turns to the topic of young women and his antipathy towards them. Higgins dismisses the idea of any romantic association with a faint contempt for the fairer sex and dismisses them asShow MoreRelated The Character of Henry Higgins in Pygmalion Essay1562 Words   |  7 Pagescharacters are usually seen as mere puppets propelled by the crisis of the plot or as mouthpieces for his socialist viewpoint. However in Pygmalion,, Shaw vindicates himself of these charges by the creation of rounded and life-like characters such as Higgins and Eliza. Clearly they are not authorial stooges. They have a peculiar quality that leaves a lasting imprint on the readers memory. But there is some truth in the charge that Shaw created a mouthpiece for his own ideas and the character of AlfredRead MoreThe Misogynistic Henry Higgins1990 Words   |  8 PagesThe Misogynistic Henry Higgins The key to understanding George Bernard Shaw’s Pygmalion lies in understanding the power struggle between the â€Å"haves† and â€Å"have-nots† – specifically the active and intentional disenfranchisement of women at the turn of the 20th century. At the core of Pygmalion there is a focus on the societal inequities of the day, with Shaw presenting society’s treatment of women as property without rights and with little understanding of their surroundings or place in society.Read MoreCharacterisation of Eliza Doolittle and Henry Higgins in Shaws Pygmalion1730 Words   |  7 PagesPygmalion is written by dramatist, playwright and critic George Bernard Shaw in the year 1912 and was first published in the year 1913. The drama revolves around three main characters – Eliza Doolittle, Professor Henry Higgins and Colonel Pickering – who are all striving towards the same goal. That is, they want to be able to pass Eliza off as a Duchess rather than the flower girl from the London slums that she actually is. It starts as just a bet on the part of the Professor and the Colonel, butRead More Alernatiove Ending to George Bernard Shaw ´s Pygmalion Essay1070 Words   |  5 PagesPygmalion Act V After Higgins, confesses to his undying love for Eliza. Eliza decides to leave Higgins’s home because felt that it would only hurt Higgins more to have her stay another moment in his home because she did not share the same feelings for him. She now resides at the home of Mrs. Higgins. Mrs. Higgins’s drawing room. She is at her writing-table as before. The parlor-maid comes in. THE PARLOR MAID [at the door]: Mr. Henry, madam, is downstairs MRS. HIGGINS: Well, show him up. Read MoreAnalysis Of Pygmalion By George Bernard Shaw1305 Words   |  6 PagesThroughout the play, Pygmalion, by George Bernard Shaw, many of the characters represent different social class structures. They also resemble how the higher class citizens feel threatened by the lower class citizens. Protagonist Eliza Doolittle, Henry Higgins, and Mrs. Pearce are prime examples of characters who portray different roles in the Victorian social structure. This play takes place during the Victorian period in England where the upper , middle, and lower class were at different stages. ThisRead MoreGeorge Bernard Shaw s Pygmalion1463 Words   |  6 Pagesoutward appearance (the way in which they spoke and dressed). People such as antagonist Henry Higgins of Pygmalion, in fact, only focused on a person’s facade; they were completely ignorant to people’s true identities. As a social activist during the early 1900s, Shaw chose to introduce the inc orrect judgment placed upon working class citizens to his wealthier audiences within his play Pygmalion. Henry Higgins finds poor flower girl Eliza and determines her a lost soul, deciding immediately he couldRead More What drove Eliza to change? What does it mean to be high class? 1502 Words   |  7 PagesIn George Bernard Shaw’s didactic, Victorian play Pygmalion, Linguistics Professor Henry Higgins’s perceptive ears are offended by the sound of Eliza’s lowly, Cockney accent, so he wishes to change it into a flawless, pleasant voice that would blend in among high society. Higgins is a sarcastic and rude character who treats Eliza badly throughout most of the play, sometimes not even acknowledging her presence. This brings up the question of why she tolerates his rudeness. What drove Eliza to changeRead MoreThemes of George Bernard Shaws Play Pygmalion Essay1156 Words   |  5 Pagesstory of Henry Higgins, a master phonetician, and his mischievous plot to p ass a common flower girl, Eliza Doolittle, off as a duchess at the Embassy Ball. In order to achieve his goal, Higgins must teach Eliza how to speak properly and how to act in upper-class society. The play looks at middle class morality and upper-class superficiality, and reflects the social ills of nineteenth century England, and attests that all people are worthy of respect and dignity. Shaws Pygmalion is Henry HigginsRead MoreHow Does Shaw Present the Relationship Between Eliza and Higgins and to What Extent Does the Audience Find It Funny.1500 Words   |  6 Pagesungraceful ivory to a stunning female statue. Shaw emphasises, social class and manners through the play of his version of Pygmalion . I will be analysing these affects and how they are comedic to the audience. At the heart of these aspects are Henry Higgins and Eliza Doolittle, a relationship that Shaw depicts as a romance. Shaws clever use of phonetics ephasises the broad cockney accent which suggests that Eliza is lower class. The audience give her their sympathies specifically because ofRead More Pygmalion Essay1651 Words   |  7 Pagescomes across a rude Professor, named Henry Higgins, he sarcastically offers her to â€Å"learn how to speak beautifully, like a lady in a florist’s shop†¦..at the end of six months you shall go to Buckingham palace in a carriage, beautifully dressed.† This is what he proposes to Eliza when she comes to ask for English lessons from the Professor. He then makes a bet with another man, Colonel Pickering, who says he will pay for her new clothes and English lessons, if Higgins can make a lady out of her in six

Thursday, December 26, 2019

Symbolism in Heart of Darkness - Free Essay Example

Sample details Pages: 3 Words: 924 Downloads: 2 Date added: 2019/06/12 Category Literature Essay Level High school Tags: Heart of Darkness Essay Did you like this example? Joseph Conradrs Heart of Darkness tells the tale of a sailor, a petty trader and commander, as well as a tyrannical company, through symbolic hidden meanings and irony. Ultimately bringing forth, the true meaning of the novella. Throughout Heart of Darkness, How these figurative elements are executed, lures the reader and envelopes them in a novella that reveals the truth of colonialism and the influence it has on the whites and minorities, making this work worthy of study in a literature course. Conrad uses symbolism in an attempt to reveal the truth of colonialism and the influence it has on the whites and minorities For instance, Kurtz and the river, both are more than what they appear to be; a man and a natural unit. The symbol is something used to insinuate that one has to look below the surface, dig deeper, in order to find the hidden meaning. As you read the novel, you come to find that the ringmaster of the heart of darkness found within the Congo, is Kurtz. Kurtz, the central figure of the novel, symbolizes many things. For one, he represents the great influence the individuals found in the Congo, referred to as savages, have on the man believed to be civilized and insane. Kurtz also represents the power hungry and greedy whites as he leads the savages to do what he ultimately desires, which is to be treated and referred to as a god like figure. While attempting to train the savages he turned into one himself. Kurtz hurt others with no remorse as he climbed the ladd er of success he had built himself during his time in the Congo. Don’t waste time! Our writers will create an original "Symbolism in Heart of Darkness" essay for you Create order Another major figure is Marlow, he too has a symbolic role in the novel. Marlow symbolizes the spirit one would find in a student. He seeks new knowledge constantly and like a child, curiosity. Once he absorbs something new during his journey, he takes a moment to observe it, analyze the human behavior, and categorize it regarding morals/values. After some time, Marlow, similarly to Kurtz, begins to show the influence savagery can have on a civilized man and how everyone contains that darkness within them. One of the minor characters in the book, the manager of the central station, symbolizes futility. Day by day he works like a machine and holds the same characteristics as one as well; unable to fear, love, or respect. The manager, similar to a set of machinery, is empty. Perhaps one of the most important symbols in this book, one that is not a character but an object, is ivory. The novel revolves around ivory, symbolizing the white mans greed. The individuals in the novel scour the Congo in search of this for a chance of success and superiority. All things found in the Heart of Darkness have a deeper meaning than one may initially believe so. Through the use of symbolism Conrad reveals the truth of colonialism and the influence it has on the whites and minorities, making this work worthy of study in a literature course. Conrad uses irony to uncover the hidden meaning in the Heart of Darkness. Irony can be described as something that is said versus what actually occurs or is true. There are many ironic situations in the novel, one of the two most important ones, regard to the two greater figures in the novel. One being the influence the Congo had on Kurtz who before traveling there, was a successful agent for a company that wrote an informative brochure on the so called amazing impact whites have on the Congo as a whole; including its savages. The form states how the whites can tame the savages and transform them into civilized human beings. However, their way of causing this transformation is extremely savage-like, making the entire situation an irony. They have become accustomed to inflicting pain on the savages and killing them in order to cause fear. Fear would then cause order and this is what they advertise to accomplish. Also, Kurtz is believed to be one of the best to civilize the savages due to his great moral restraint. This is an irony within an irony. Not only is their way of civilizing the savages immoral but Kurtz also allows his position in the Congo get to his head, leading him to become a savage himself. In the civilized mans attempt to transform a savage he was unable to control his moral self and became a savage himself. During his time there, Kurtz becomes so power-hungry that he begins to order the savages to worship him as if he were a god and to scour the Congo for ivory so that he too can be successful and above all, far more superior than the rest. Him being a part of a company that speaks of being able to civilize savages and then being easily transformed into a savage himself, is one of the greatest ironies the novella holds. The execution of these ironic moments and how they blend into one another seamlessly not to mention how well they compliment each other, make it worthy of study in a literature course. From the beginning, Conrad brings the reader aboard the Nellie in a tale saturated with ironies and symbolism. His execution of these two figurative elements lures the reader into the Congo alongside Marlow for a tale of horror. Conrad reveals the truth of colonialism and the influence it has on the whites and minorities, making this work worthy of study in a literature course.